Modern humans have developed during the last six to seven million years some of developments that make us, Homo sapiens, a totally precise species indeed. We by myself of all the mammals (as well as all invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles) have a bipedal gait. We on my own of all of our primate cousins are for all sensible functions hairless. Of all of the animals that are, or have ever been, we are pinnacle of the pops with respect to brain size as a feature of body size, and in terms of intelligence, king of the hill complete stop. And at the same time as animals can speak via vocalizations and frame language, none can talk the extremely wide variety of practical and especially abstract principles that we can. Last, however no longer least, humans are nearly particular in making and the usage of outside equipment, tools specific in terms of their sophistication Conservative.
All 5 fundamental tendencies cited above, and plenty more it’s associated except, don’t seem to be a demand for basic survival, on the grounds that other species continue to exist and thrive without them, and in reality these kind of predominant 5 defining developments (and more) appear to have some actual evolutionary drawbacks, now not the least of which require very serious modifications to primary primate anatomy for reputedly no growth in that Darwinian word “survival of the fittest”. The proof of that pudding is that our closing primate ancestor nevertheless survives – the chimpanzee; their remaining descendent survives – the contemporary human; but all those in-betweens hominids who were possibly adapting thru natural selection resulting in all the ones evolutionary converting improvements, went kaput – over twenty species of them. If these “survival of the fittest” evolutionary adaptations were all that crash hot and essential, then why was their loss of life? Any ancestral hominoids that went extinct previous to two hundred,000 years ago can not have Homo sapiens because the villain. Those 20 plus extinct hominid species apart, why are not many of those herbal choice upgrades certainly so crash hot for us present day people either? Here’s the trouble with human evolution. But first don’t forget this.
THE ROOT CAUSE & DRIVING FORCE
The cutting-edge widespread model of human evolution explains the ‘why’ question because of rapid and intense shifts in weather in continental Africa over that six to seven million year length. The valuable trouble there IMHO is why those shifts failed to substantially produce evolutionary adjustments inside the rest of the animal populations like elephants, lions, hyenas, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests and other African landlubbers as the Dark Continent went from jungle to wooded area to savannah to arid deserts and returned once more.
Now of route environmental trade is a prime riding pressure at the back of organic evolution, at the least in relation to natural choice. But one has to look at the Big Picture, the whole lot of the bio-realm and now not simply isolate one converting species and hyperlink the 2 and ignore all else. The environment changes and hominoids exchange however all of the different species apparently don’t exchange. That makes for an anomaly.
One of the important thing phrases in evolution is that “there may be a charge to pay” for exchange – no loose lunch or get out of jail card is authorized. That “no ache, no benefit” price applies whether you are handling herbal or artificial selection. But I occasionally marvel whether or not one is getting a fifty-cent advantage go back on a greenback funding well worth of ache. Consider the following.
OUR BIPEDAL GAIT
* Is an anomaly in that humans, on my own of all the mammals, stroll automatically on just two legs.
* It known as for an entire redecorate of our musculoskeletal system vis-à-vis our chimpanzee ancestors.
* That consequences in an growth in all our numerous painful awful returned trials and tribulations.
* And it additionally calls for a rearrangement of our internal organ attachments.
* A bipedal gait wishes a more difficult operating coronary heart to pump blood up to our now higher higher reaches, just like the head and neck, in preference to particularly sideways. A bipedal gait way having to fight the higher fight towards gravity.
* A bipedal gait consequences in an growth in difficulties in maintaining an upright balance (especially as one grows older) because the centre of gravity has shifted dramatically. It’s plenty simpler to push over a status human than say a status canine.
* A bipedal gait further results in a decrease in survival value because of the ever possible loss of or harm to a leg, foot, ankle, and so on. Lose the use of a leg and in the desert, you’re nearly helpless.
* A bipedal gait has to the great of my understanding most effective arisen as soon as before, and that changed into inside the theropod dinosaur department, like T-Rex, and so forth. That turned into the department that gave upward push to the birds, therefore they’re additionally bipedal, but it originated with an early, early ancestor of T-Rex. Some may also argue that kangaroos and their family like the wallabies are bipedal, however they don’t positioned one leg in the front of the other in a left-right-left-right-left-right style. They hop, which would not quite put them in the identical class as people or even birds. Further, the theropod dinosaurs, the birds, and even the kangaroos all have tails to assist keep their centre of balance, nicely, balanced. That’s cheating!!! Humans lack that guide structure (a alternatively sad tale I’m sure), so I’ll argue that the human bipedal gait remains particular among all animals, beyond and gift. Humans stay the one and most effective genuinely bona-fide bipedal entity. Okay, some tailless primates can ‘stroll’ for quick periods, but their ordinary locomotion is via their 4 limbs at the floor whilst no longer swinging in the timber.
C – A bipedal gait isn’t a lifestyle walk-the-stroll gait that is generally cited in cats – in truth it isn’t referred to at all. Why cats? Why no longer cats? C is for Cat; C is for Comparison. So as a evaluation, allow’s take cats, who have a mess of tom cat family (tigers, lions, etc.) and who have survived and thrived for pretty some big time. Why cats? Firstly because I’m acquainted with cats and secondly due to the fact they are a sophisticated multicellular quite sophisticated mammalian species, plenty liken to us. Cats proportion a first rate deal with us human beings apart from being warm-blooded mammals. Cats, like human beings are curious, playful, generally tend to look after primary, are territorial, like to sleep, dream, have an amazing reminiscence, display emotions, and like humans have colonized the globe – except Antarctica – either as domestics or as ferals or as wild animals, etc. But, they don’t stroll-the-walk on simply their two hind legs!
A LARGE HUMAN BRAIN
* Is an anomaly, together with that related brain thingy high IQ or intelligence we have, relative to the rest of the animal state, which collectively aren’t quite, by using any stretch of the imagination, in Einstein’s league. Humans have the most important mind length as a feature of frame size inside the whole animal country, once more, apparently each beyond and gift..
* A big human mind makes for an an increasing number of dangerous childbirth. The rather large head of the foetus at childbirth, having to skip through the distance available through the hip beginning, has resulted in no longer only a instead painful experience for the mom (and probably the little one too) but has frequently brought about the premature loss of life of quite a few said newborns and/or their mothers. Now some other anomaly right here is that if the human frame has accommodated all the huge anatomical adjustments required for a bipedal lifestyle, you’d think an increase inside the birth canal hip establishing size could have been tremendously evolutionary child’s play.
* The human brain takes years to increase completely, almost two a long time worth in truth, leaving toddlers completely dependent on others for survival. Infants need care not only for a few weeks or months or seasons, but for lots, many years, extending right through their young adults, as a consequence cramping the lifestyle of the mother and father. This period of time for brain development and associated obtaining of survival competencies to absolutely broaden is unheard of in all different primates.
* A massive human brain is a totally strength-intensive organ. In reality 25% of our energy requirements are required to gas our upstairs grey-count number wetware. That in flip places extra pressures on searching and/or accumulating for that extra in food resources required to supply that power want. Apparently the growth in the ones electricity needs is what drove us to start to seek out and devour meat and invent cooking (to make the meat less difficult to digest). Well, perhaps.
C – Cats, but endearing, aren’t a touch tom cat model of Einstein.
A LACK OF FUR
* Is an anomaly on the grounds that humans alone of nearly two hundred species of our primate cousins are considered a “bare ape”.
* Our relative lack of fur makes us depending on sweating for temperature regulation, additionally making us particularly depending on assets of freshwater and salt.
* Our relative loss of fur has the plain gain of permitting human beings to turn out to be lengthy distance staying power runners for the reason that we can constantly hold cool, even whilst running, through sweating, yet what we’re jogging after (prey), or from (predators), don’t sweat and consequently are fast overcome by means of heat exhaustion. We get a meal, or break out from being one. Well it’s the standard situation. I think it’d have made more experience to have used our social group numbers, growing IQ and tool making capabilities to hunt and ambush sport instead of strolling them down. As for escaping predators, possibly we must have retained our tree hiking capabilities, and if no trees were to be had, there are constantly rocks to throw and sticks to membership predators with. I’m now not satisfied loss of fur in order to sweat so one can run marathons for you to eat or keep away from being eaten are associated in a purpose-and-effect way. In any event strolling is likewise very electricity consuming and it is not normally sound practice to dissipate more energy than you need to, specially while you do not know wherein and when your next meal is coming from. And if it’s miles superb for evolving hominoids to lose fur, absorb sweating, soak up jogging, and run to exhaustion large prey animals, then it must also be superb for other predators, like the lion, to do the identical. But that hasn’t came about. Why now not?
* Our relative loss of fur requires the want, as a substitution, for garb in cooler environments. Why a human, originating in and tailored to a tropical climate without want of fur, therefore with out want of apparel, might migrate into cooler, even cold habitats wherein fur, or now a clothing substitute as an alternative, is a near requirement, is itself an anomaly. You change fur for clothing, however garb in itself calls for a whole lot of unique skills to supply – fur does not.
C – Cats, as well as their wildlife huge cat cousins, do not lack a natural protecting of fur.
A VOCAL LANGUAGE
* Is an anomaly in that most effective humans vocalise not simplest ordinary, ordinary, survival ‘language’ (all way of animals try this) but summary ideas (which no other animals do).
* A vocal or spoken language required to communicate abstract thoughts, as aside from just making sounds, requires an evolutionary rearrangement of the applicable inner organs required; lips, enamel, tongue, tough and smooth palate, larynx, etc.
C – Cats meow, lions roar, however their meow (or the lion’s roar) has nothing to do with speaking summary principles like fundamental arithmetic.
* Is an anomaly in that while a few different animals could make and use tools, that relative diploma of class relative to what humans have achieved is corresponding to comparing the survival abilties of a day-antique little one with that of an grownup.
* Tool use requires an evolutionary rearrangement of the finger-hand-wrist-arm-shoulder configuration, as well as that greater-big mind thingy to parent out that a tool is needed, what sources are required to make that tool, and a way to manufacture the vital put into effect from those sources. A lot of simply-so situations should be met to deal with even the maximum basic of device technology.
* Tool use could in the long run show our undoing as tool use, or technology, is a double-edged sword. A gun can put meals to your desk; it may also exterminate human beings.
C – Cats are not tailored at using equipment. If they may use a can opener and a spoon they may get their personal food! That would suit me just great, but regrettably.
BREEDS or ETHNIC/RACIAL DISTINCTIONS
* Are anomalous in that after taking into consideration the rest of the animal and plant kingdom, breeds (groupings that appearance exclusive but can nonetheless breed and produce non-sterile offspring) have a tendency to be related to synthetic, no longer natural selection. Are human breeds therefore a fabricated from artificial choice, and if so, by means of whom?
* Human breeds can’t be adequately defined in the just 70,000 or some unusual years considering that one unique racial kind of Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa and spread for the duration of the globe diverging into numerous racial types. Even if there were numerous migrations out of Africa, a wave of migrations, all those migrant waves were of 1 race or breed. The 70,000 year term is very quick, the blink of a watch in evolutionary phrases, to attain this uniqueness of going from a local African uni-race to a multiracial worldwide society. Further, the evolutionary (survival of the fittest) gain or purpose(s) for ethnic distinctions are lacking any rational natural clarification, aside from in some selected races, pores and skin coloration.
C – Your wellknown tom cat comes in numerous breeds. That’s artificial choice at paintings, albeit the whodunit in this situation is well known.
UNIQUE FACIAL FEATURES
* Are a fantastically human anomaly. Apart from same twins, no people from the neck up look the equal, and for that reason this is how we inform human identities, once visible, apart. We generally tend to inform animals of the same species or breed (if applicable) apart by way of length, coloration, skin/fur patterns, abnormalities, or else we do not distinguish who is who in any respect. To me, all magpie faces appearance the same. The question is, why human beings have precise facial features and now not the relaxation of the animal country?
C – If you took a hundred pure short-hair black cats, equal length, same sex, same eye shade, ought to you inform them apart by way of looking at just their face? I doubt if I could.
* Are anomalous in that seemingly no different animal display them, and based on all of the animals and birds I see round my neighborhood surroundings, that really appears to be the case. So why do we display the whites-of-our-eyes? There could appear to be no rhyme or motive for this natural human evolutionary (if it became a natural selection) trait. The whites-of-our-eyes: how very, very atypical.
C – Cats have whites-of-their-eyes, only you have to peel back the pores and skin surrounding their eyeballs to look the whites-of-their-eyes. Looking at a wellknown cat, you will fail to notice the whites-of-their-eyes.
* Are anomalous in that apparently no different mammal (and virtually now not any fish, amphibian, reptile or chook) have them. So why can we have them?
* Earlobes? WTF you ask? Well we all understand that our earlobes serve a cultural cause or function as a prime website as an accessory to fashion – pierced ears and earrings. However, earlobes serve no actual organic feature. You could exist, continue to exist and thrive without them. Because we alone have earlobes, and because they serve no organic cause, they’re anomalous.
* On the other hand, earlobes seemingly don’t do us any damage. But, biological evolution has a tendency to pick for the fantastic gain, no longer the neutral. Why could Mother Nature evolve them in the event that they serve no organic motive? WTF certainly!
C – Cats have ears; cats do no longer have earlobes.
* Is anomalous in that if performed just for the sake of doing it, serves no fantastic evolutionary purpose or outcome even as accenting a poor one, giving oneself a ‘Darwin Award’ for removing yourself from similarly contributions to the evolution of the human species.
* No animal will interact in any hazardous pastime that does not have a few connection towards its very own, its instantaneous own family brood, its network or its species survival. An animal does not take risks just for the sake of taking risks and only for the fun of all of it. Humans but will frequently have interaction in excessive volatile sports, with none gain to anyone, along with themselves, except to possibly remove themselves from the gene pool. Risky behaviour might include proper up to and which includes suicide which most decidedly eliminates you from the gene pool. Suicide is not a trait that tends to be shared through our animal relations, and obvious exceptions, like whales stranding themselves in shallow water, have a physiological explanation.
C – Cats are not recognised to take risks above and past the decision in their tom cat duty, even if they do on occasion get caught up a tree!
PRIVACY AND EMBARRASSMENT
* Is anomalous in that no animal species, out of doors of the human species, appears to be the slightest bit worried with privateness (now not to be confused with territoriality or non-public space, rather simply privacy from being observed under certain situations or in sure situations normally of a sexual or physical function nature). Nor do animals, in contrast to humans, go through any shape of embarrassment. That suggests that there may be no evolutionary or survival aspect to the want for privateness or the struggling of being embarrassed. Somehow, in people on my own (however not yet in infants or babies), these concepts had been imprinted onto our collective psyche. Imprinted via whom? What is the final beginning and how a ways back does it move? Why is it so? Who knows! But the upshot is this needs to be a cultural quirk; it is sincerely no longer a biological one.
* There are seemingly real taboo locations in human society in which intruders are not welcome: the bed room and the bathroom, or placed any other manner, sex and physical capabilities, in which privateness is paramount and whilst violated, embarrassment ensues. The latter mainly is difficult in that physical functions are universal. Every human has to go to the rest room, all women have ‘that time of the month’, so why those should be embarrassments if witnessed by means of others is anomalous. That’s also highlighted in that sex and physical features are not biological activities which animals locate requires privateness or reasons embarrassment to them if witnessed by means of others.
* Nudity according to se does not appear to be the root purpose, as people seem to be way less shy of acting nude in fairly standard social conditions than while engaged in extra private bedroom/bathroom subjects that require exposure.
* Embarrassment in people can be due to many other oops events, maybe comical, like carrying mismatched socks, maybe somewhat extra extreme like splitting your pants in public. But if an equivalent event happens to an animal, no such response comes to the fore. For instance, if you stumble and give way, piss your pants, or vomit in public, you’re embarrassed. If an animal does the equivalent, it simply selections itself up and acts like nothing unusual transpired. Animals don’t blush.
C – Cats do not care if you or some other cat sees them mate or visit the litter box. They do not go through embarrassment and they don’t blush.
C – Its best honest to ask with reference to my pussycat evaluation, does a cat have any anatomical or physiological or behavioural characteristic specific to them and handiest them? The sudden solution is sure. Cats purr, and the reasons why and how are nonetheless not well understood. Humans don’t purr. No other animal purrs. Their large cat household don’t purr, however however lions and tigers, and so forth. Roar, and your pet pussy cat doesn’t. So perhaps the two vocalizations are associated from manner lower back while they all had a common ancestor! But purr or roar, there appears to be no evolutionary drawbacks, simply tremendous survival benefits like warning off rival lions (my roar is louder than your roar) or mom/kitten bonding in cats.
* There are 4 viable explanations for the various anomalies associated with the life of the modern human species relative to our alleged ancestral inventory which is going proper again to the chimpanzees. In descending order of possibility, IMHO, there’s the simulated universe scenario inhabited by us as digital entities (created by way of ‘people’ or things unknown and in all likelihood all the time unknowable); there is synthetic selection (the historical astronaut theory); there’s herbal choice (the Darwinian organic evolution idea); and way, way closing, via a extensive, huge margin, there is supernatural creation (the dust-and-rib theory and versions thereof).
* Why this ordering of probabilities? There are many paths to a simulated universe, from wetware to software program, through extraterrestrials or perhaps a future ‘human’ society, that it borders on the close to inevitable. There’s however one pathway to the artificial selection scenario, although that too is just about inevitable. There are many troubles available with herbal selection as this essay demonstrates, though it truly is the usual model. Lastly, the concept of an all-ideal supernatural deity who might screw up matters so royally is laughable – as is the concept of a supernatural deity inside the first region.
* The thrilling bit is that a digital truth simulation may want to easily be a simulation of an ‘ancient astronaut’ generated artificial choice, or Darwinian herbal selection, or even a supernatural creator deity! Truth be acknowledged, only the simulated universe scenario makes any actual feel, IMHO, due to the fact therein, “anything is going”, and on the subject of the troubles with human evolution, one needs an “anything goes” clarification.